D/D1 licence: training and test

For which vehicles? 

  • the D driving licence: motor vehicles designed and built for the transport of more than eight passengers, in addition to the driver. To vehicles in this category can be coupled a trailer with a maximum authorised weight of 750 kg.
  • the D1 driving licence: motor vehicles designed and built for the transport of more than eight passengers and a maximum of 16 passengers, in addition to the driver. Maximum length of 8 metres. To vehicles in this category can be coupled a trailer with a maximum authorised weight of 750 kg.

To couple a trailer of more than 750 kg, you must hold a D/D1 + E licence

From what age?

The minimum age for obtaining a full D driving licence, without a Certificate of Professional Competence (CAP) is 24 years.

The minimum age for obtaining a full D1 driving licence, without a Certificate of Professional Competence (CAP) is 21 years.

The minimum age for obtaining a full D/D1 driving licence, with a Certificate of Professional Competence (CAP) is 18 years.

Must I have a B licence to have a D licence?

You must have a B licence to take the tests for the D licence.

Medical examination?

All drivers of vehicles in categories C1, C, C1 + E, C + E, D1, D, D1 + E or D + E must have passed a medical examination, whether they are learning or have a driving licence.

  • Step 1: eye test by an ophthalmologist of your choice
  • Step 2: medical examination by a certified doctor at a medical centre of the State medical and social office or an occupational health service

If the examination finds that you meet the expected medical standards (set out in Appendix 6 to the Royal Decree of 23 March 1998 on driving licences), the relevant body will issue a medical certificate.

The medical examination has a maximum validity of five years.

Professional aptitude

Drivers who carry out professional transport must meet the professional aptitude requirements:

  • pass an initial qualification test to obtain a Certificate of Professional Aptitude = CAP - code 95
  • followed by 35 hours of ongoing training every five years (extension of the certificate)

The following restrictions apply to those under the age of 21:

  • at 18, the CAP D is only valid for regular services in Belgium whose journey does not exceed 50 kilometres.
  • at 20, the CAP D is only valid for the transport of passengers in Belgium.

Theory training

Two learning pathways:

  • private lessons: you ensure your own theory training.
  • via an accredited driving school: you take at least six hours of theory lessons.

Further information:


Theory test

The test differs depending on what you want to take.

If you take the driving test without CAP:

  • you can take the theory test from the age of 17 years and 9 months.
  • the test is in the form of an audiovisual test in French or Dutch on a computer. It is composed of 50 multiple choice questions relating to the subject of the driving licence. To pass, you must score at least 41 points out of 50.

If you take the combined driving test (driving licence and CAP):

  • you can take the theory test from the age of 17 years and 9 months.
  • the test is composed of three parts:
  1. an audiovisual test on a computer in French or Dutch, composed of 100 multiple-choice questions: 50 questions on the driving licence + 50 on "professional aptitude". To pass, you must score at least 40 points out of 50 for each subject.
  2. A test with eight case studies: five multiple choice questions for each case study. To pass, you must score at least 32 points out of 40.
  3. An oral test comprising 10 questions. To pass, you must score a minimum of 80 points out of 100 (each question is assessed out of 10 points)

If you take the initial qualification test (CAP after the issuing of the driving licence):

  • the test is composed of three parts:
  1. an audiovisual test on a computer in French or Dutch, composed of 100 multiple-choice questions on "professional aptitude". To pass, you must score at least 80 points out of 100.
  2. A test with eight case studies: five multiple choice questions for each case study.  To pass, you must score at least 32 points out of 40.
  3. An oral test comprising 10 questions. To pass, you must score a minimum of 80 points out of 100 (each question is assessed out of 10 points)

If you take the additional initial qualification test (CAP if you already hold a C and D licence and CAP for one of these):

  • the test is composed of three parts:
  1. an audiovisual test on a computer in French or Dutch, composed of 50 multiple-choice questions on "professional aptitude". To pass, you must score at least 40 points out of 50.
  2. A test with four case studies: five multiple choice questions for each case study. To pass, you must score at least 16 points out of 20.
  3. An oral test comprising five questions. To pass, you must score a minimum of 40 points out of 50 (each question is assessed out of 10 points)

Validity: a pass in each of the theory tests is valid for three years.

tarifs examens.pdf(PDF) (157.83 Ko)

There are two test centres in Brussels: Anderlecht and Schaerbeek.

Special theory test sessions: by appointment only

  • Candidates who do not speak Dutch or French can take the test with the assistance of a sworn German or English interpreter appointed by the test centre. The interpreter is paid by the candidate.
  • Candidates with a hearing impairment can take the test with the assistance of a sworn sign language interpreter appointed by the test centre. The interpreter is paid by the candidate.
  • Candidates whose mental or intellectual capacities, or literacy levels, are insufficient may take the test in a special session. To be admitted to a special session, a certificate or declaration from a psycho-medical-social centre, a Public Centre for Social Welfare, a special education institute, an observation and guidance centre, a speech therapist or neuro-psychiatrist or a vocational guidance centre must be presented. These declarations must mention either insufficient mental or intellectual faculties or an insufficient literacy level.

Exclusion:

A candidate who is found to be cheating will fail and is excluded from all participation in this test for a period of one year.

Candidates who disrupt the test by their behaviour will fail and be excluded from all participation in the test for a period of six months.


Practical training

  • private training: with a provisional licence Template 3. With guide. Accompanied training of a minimum of one month and a maximum of 12 months.
  • via an accredited driving school: without a provisional licence. Minimum of eight hours of lessons. Direct access to the test without training.

Private lessons: after two failed tests on land or two failures on public roads, you must take a four-hour training course in an approved driving school and present the learning certificate to be able to take the test again. Any classes taken before the two failures will not be taken into consideration. The new test must be taken with the driving school.


The practical test

You can take the practical test from the age of 18.

To be admitted to the practical test, you must have passed the theory test less than three years ago.

You must have passed the initial qualification theory test to be admitted to the initial qualification practical test.

The test requirements differ depending on what you want to take.

If you take the driving test without CAP:

  • The test includes two aspects:
  1. a test on land isolated from traffic: four manoeuvres must be made. A pass in this test remains valid for one year.
  2. a test on public roads in traffic for 45 minutes. You must have already passed the test on private land,

If you take the combined driving test (driving licence and CAP):

  • The test comprises three parts:
  1. a driving test on public roads of at least 90 minutes.
  2. an initial qualification practical test
  3. a test on land isolated from traffic.

A pass in each part of the practical test is valid for three years.

If you take the initial qualification test (CAP after the issuing of the driving licence):

  • The test comprises two parts:
  1. a driving test on public roads of at least 90 minutes.
  2. an initial qualification practical test

A pass in each part of the practical test is valid for three years.

If you take the additional initial qualification test (CAP if you already hold a C and D licence and CAP for one of these):

  • The test comprises two parts:
  1. a driving test on public roads of at least 90 minutes.
  2. an initial qualification practical test

A pass in each part of the practical test is valid for three years.

tarifs examens.pdf(PDF) (157.83 Ko)

There are two test centres in Brussels: Anderlecht and Schaerbeek.